It was invented in the early modern age. It is important so we can measure how far away planets are and to measure how heavy a planet is.
Nicolaus Copernicus was born Feb 19, 1473. At Torun, Poland. He died 1543. At Frombork, Poland. He specialized in astronomy. He invented the Heliocentric Theory.
Andreas Vesalius was born Dec 31, 1514. At Belgium. He died in Oct 15, 1564. He latinized his name when he went to college. He wrote a book on anatomy and challenged Galen’s work. Galen’s work was based on human anatomy, but he thought that human anatomy was like monkey anatomy. It was illegal to dissect a human body, so he had to dissect animals. Vesalius was the first person to challenge Galen’s work.
The pencil was invented in 1560 but it wasn’t patented till 1795. Pencil led is actually graphite. Hundreds of thousands maybe even millions of people use a pencil everyday.